Green Cities, Eco-Industries, and Sustainable Infrastructure
To achieve a better life quality in the cities, there is an urgent need to accelerate the transition towards a cleaner, healthier, and viable cities through renewable energy, resource efficiency, pollution and waste reduction, expanding green open spaces, etc. Industries have also long been subjected as the main cause of environmental pollution and degradations (air, water, land, etc). The use of artifical intelligence and smart technologies in the city and industrial contexts have been developed. Electronic data collection devices can be used to supply information in the assests and resource management and decision-making process. Big data generated in this approach is useful in improving municipal service and industrial processes towards a more sustainable living and production.
Water Resource Conservation
The growing demand for freshwater and the depletion of usable clean water sources make this precious resource is getting scarce. Physical water scarcity results from the inadequacy of natural water resources to supply demand in a certain area, meanwhile economic water scarcity results from poor management of the sufficient water resources available in an area. Water conservation must comprise policies, regulations, and all activities to promote more sustainable exploitation of water resource to meet present and future demand for clean water supply.
Waste to Energy and Resources
Unmanaged waste produced by human activities rapidly brings negative impacts for human and environment. On the other hand, there is a potential to recover energy and material from waste. Waste-to-energy (WTE) approach, or generating electricity/heat energy or fuel from the primary treatment of waste, have been developed. Many utilities and industrial sector face operational issues associated with the rising cost of energy and lack of a reliable energy supplies. Waste to resources approach, such as recycling and composting, also generates economic benefit associated with the new products recovered from waste.
Climate Change and Global Warming
The current changing of climate due to human activity proceeds at an unprecedented rate. There has been a significant warming rate of the world’s temperature in the last decades. This inevitably affects the rise of sea level, the loss of sea ice, more extreme weathers, and various health impacts for the human. Climate change and air pollution are also closely interlinked. The emission of several air pollutants contributes to the deterioration of air quality and exacerbates climate change and global warming.
Healthy and Safe Communities
Environmental and public health are crucial elements in a sustainable community. Many aspects of human well-being are influenced by the environment, and many diseases can be initiated, promoted, sustained, or stimulated by environmental factors. Moreover, health and safety at the workplace are crucial not only in promoting workers’ health and working capacity, but also promoting a positive working climate that enhances productivity.
Environment Restoration and Rehabilitation
Human activities have been causing environmental degradations, especially to water and soil. The impact of this degradation can pose risks to human health. Water and soil restoration and rehabilitation serve as attempts to minimize these risks. Rehabilitation is an action to specifically treat or otherwise remove pollution or contamination. Meanwhile, restoration aims to assist in the recovery of an ecosystem’s functions, e.g. ecosystem services.
Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation
Disaster preparedness and mitigation are important elements in areas which are prone to disasters (earthquakes, tsunami, flood, drought, vulcanic disasters, forest fire, etc.), such as Indonesia and other Asian countries. Preparedness, or steps taken to effectively respond to a disastrous situation, is the key to survival and to maintain safety during a disaster. Mitigation, that consists of structural and non-structural efforst to elimine, is also required as long-term and pre-disaster action plans to reduce risks associated with disasters.